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Accelerating climate neutral aviation, minimising non-CO2 emissions
Horizon Europe - Cluster 5 - Destination 5: Clean and competitive solutions for all transport modes
Estimated EU contribution per project
between € 4,000,000.00 and € 5,000,000.00
Link to the call
Link to the submission
Project results should focus to the minimisation of aviation non-CO2 emissions.
EU-studies show that approximately 50-75% of aviation’s climate impact is caused by non-CO2 emissions. It is because of their local geographical character, their dependency on atmospheric phenomena, the incomplete understanding and uncertainty as well as operational trade-offs that non-CO2 emissions have been less-targeted so far from international and European regulatory measures. Recent studies show that cost-effective mitigation measures are possible, provided that focused R&I actions together with flight tests resolve the final uncertainties. However, today any avoidance that increases CO2 emissions, even at a net reduction of overall climate warming impact, introduces a complex policy issue of mitigating short-term versus long term climate effects.
Recent EU and National-funded research activities (i.e. FP7-REACT4C, SESAR-FLyATM4E, ALARM, SINOPTICA, DLR-WeCARE, H2020-ACACIA, HE-BECOM) characterized better the contrail formation and provided more insight in the aviation NOx emissions and ozone formation. The studies also showed that if aircraft operations are only optimized for fuel use, they may have an increased climate impact, since non-CO2 effects may compensate the reduced warming from CO2 savings.
Avoiding climate sensitive regions has a large potential in reducing climate impact at relatively low costs without causing significantly more CO2 emissions that outweigh the overall climate effect. The integration of data analytics and weather forecasting into advanced decision-support software tools that are able to predict real-time the contrail formation as well as propose alternative paths, are well in-line with the scope of this topic. This topic aims to integrate and provide clear operational guidelines supported by validated flight tests. Engine gas and particle emissions characterisation, when data is incomplete or unavailable, is in-line with the scope of this topic.
As a follow-up of EASA study, on non-CO2 climate impacts, and for the standardisation in view of safety considerations and future certification, the involvement of EASA is necessary (e.g. as part of the steering group), as well as the coordination with ICAO relevant groups (CAEP).
Synergies with SESAR3 should also be exploited – in view of the relevant topics in the SESAR3 JU bi-annual work programme 2022-2023. Furthermore, international collaboration for research and Air-Traffic Management should be sought (e.g. SESAR/NextGen).
Synergies may also be considered with the Digital Sky Demonstrators, including in particular flights for demonstrating green trajectories or equipped with sensors to collect data for the assessment of the non-CO2 impact on aviation. Finally, synergies with Destination Earth should also be sought.
Project results are expected to contribute to at least three of the following expected outcomes:
- Primarily, further increase the scientific understanding related to the impact of aerosols on clouds as well as the contribution of aviation NOx emissions to climate change.
- Investigate further on how to support potential policy measures identified in the EASA study, including whether they are proportionate, feasible and reduce the overall climate impact (CO2 and non-CO2 emissions).
- Perform detailed analysis of optimal relation between costs and climate.
- Perform engine gas and particle emissions characterisation, when data is incomplete or unavailable.
- Perform flight tests and demonstrate the benefits and fuel burn trade-offs of avoiding climate sensitive regions.
- Perform hydrogen and aviation drop-in fuel research with an eye towards reducing further non-CO2 emissions.
- Develop further real-time decision-support software for airlines and ATM, to predict the location and global warming impact of contrail and contrail cirrus formation.
Regions / countries for funding
Moldova (Moldova), Albania (Shqipëria), Armenia (Հայաստան), Bosnia and Herzegovina (Bosna i Hercegovina / Босна и Херцеговина), Faeroes (Føroyar / Færøerne), Georgia (საქართველო), Island (Ísland), Israel (ישראל / إِسْرَائِيل), Kosovo (Kosova/Kosovë / Косово), Montenegro (Црна Гора), Morocco (المغرب), North Macedonia (Северна Македонија), Norway (Norge), Serbia (Srbija/Сpбија), Tunisia (تونس /Tūnis), Türkiye, Ukraine (Україна), United Kingdom
Education and training institution, International organization, Non-Profit Organisation (NPO) / Non-Governmental Organisation (NGO), Other, Private institution, incl. private company (private for profit), Public Body (national, regional and local; incl. EGTCs), Research Institution incl. University, Small and medium-sized enterprise (SME)
To be eligible for funding, applicants must be established in one of the following countries:
- the Member States of the European Union, including their outermost regions
- the Overseas Countries and Territories (OCTs) linked to the Member States
- third countries associated to Horizon Europe - see list of particpating countries
Only legal entities forming a consortium are eligible to participate in actions provided that the consortium includes, as beneficiaries, three legal entities independent from each other and each established in a different country as follows:
- at least one independent legal entity established in a Member State; and
- at least two other independent legal entities, each established in different Member States or Associated Countries.
Any legal entity, regardless of its place of establishment, including legal entities from non-associated third countries or international organisations (including international European research organisations) is eligible to participate (whether it is eligible for funding or not), provided that the conditions laid down in the Horizon Europe Regulation have been met, along with any other conditions laid down in the specific call topic.
A ‘legal entity’ means any natural or legal person created and recognised as such under national law, EU law or international law, which has legal personality and which may, acting in its own name, exercise rights and be subject to obligations, or an entity without legal personality.
- Affiliated entities — Affiliated entities (i.e. entities with a legal or capital link to a beneficiary which participate in the action with similar rights and obligations to the beneficiaries, but which do not sign the grant agreement and therefore do not become beneficiaries themselves) are allowed, if they are eligible for participation and funding.
- Associated partners — Associated partners (i.e. entities which participate in the action without signing the grant agreement, and without the right to charge costs or claim contributions) are allowed, subject to any conditions regarding associated partners set out in the specific call conditions.
- Entities without legal personality — Entities which do not have legal personality under their national law may exceptionally participate, provided that their representatives have the capacity to undertake legal obligations on their behalf, and offer guarantees to protect the EU’s financial interests equivalent to those offered by legal persons.
- EU bodies — Legal entities created under EU law including decentralised agencies may be part of the consortium, unless provided for otherwise in their basic act.
- Joint Research Centre (‘JRC’)— Where provided for in the specific call conditions, applicants may include in their proposals the possible contribution of the JRC but the JRC will not participate in the preparation and submission of the proposal. Applicants will indicate the contribution that the JRC could bring to the project based on the scope of the topic text. After the evaluation process, the JRC and the consortium selected for funding may come to an agreement on the specific terms of the participation of the JRC. If an agreement is found, the JRC may accede to the grant agreement as beneficiary requesting zero funding or participate as an associated partner, and would accede to the consortium as a member.
- Associations and interest groupings — Entities composed of members (e.g. European research infrastructure consortia (ERICs)) may participate as ‘sole beneficiaries’ or ‘beneficiaries without legal personality’. However, if the action is in practice implemented by the individual members, those members should also participate (either as beneficiaries or as affiliated entities, otherwise their costs will NOT be eligible.
other eligibility criteria
Activities are expected to achieve TRL 2-4 by the end of the project.
If projects use satellite-based earth observation, positioning, navigation and/or related timing data and services, beneficiaries must make use of Copernicus and/or Galileo/EGNOS (other data and services may additionally be used).
Relevance for EU Macro-Region
EUSAIR - EU Strategy for the Adriatic and Ionian Region, EUSALP - EU Strategy for the Alpine Space, EUSBSR - EU Strategy for the Baltic Sea Region, EUSDR - EU Strategy for the Danube Region
UN Sustainable Development Goals (UN-SDGs)
All proposals must be submitted electronically via the Funders & Tenders Portal electronic submission system (accessible via the topic page in the Search Funding & Tenders section). Paper submissions are NOT possible.
Proposals must be complete and contain all parts and mandatory annexes and supporting documents, e.g. plan for the exploitation and dissemination of the results including communication activities, etc.
The application form will have two parts:
- Part A (to be filled in directly online) contains administrative information about the applicant organisations (future coordinator and beneficiaries and affiliated entities), the summarised budget for the proposal and call-specific questions;
- Part B (to be downloaded from the Portal submission system, completed and then assembled and re-uploaded as a PDF in the system) contains the technical description of the project.
Annexes and supporting documents will be directly available in the submission system and must be uploaded as PDF files (or other formats allowed by the system).
The limit for a full application (Part B) is 45 pages.